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Challenges faced in merger and acquisition for Information System like ERP

Challenges in ERP

To perform successful integration and merging with the target companies or whatever it may be, it is highly essential to understand and address certain factors like IT asset consolidation, organization structures, data migration possibilities, management execution, etc. Because this process is a very complex exercise and requires in-depth knowledge, deep thinking, and precise execution in order to fit in the new structure.

Most mergers and acquisitions are decided upon at the management or group level without the involvement of IT in view of software outsourcing companies in India. But these decisions have a direct impact on the IT landscape. This leads to an increase in the complexity of integration – particularly data migration and integration.

In an acquisition, a target company is acquired and absorbed by the bidding company and after the deal, only the bidding company exists, while the target company goes out of existence. A merger differs from an acquisition in that two companies join to form an entirely new organization. This involves the integration of all of the components of the two companies to form a new company. In practice, the terms mergers, acquisition, and consolidation are often used interchangeably, because they differ only in terms of legal aspects.

Software development companies or IT vendor with whom the company is in contact, faces number of issues and challenges in integrating information systems of two different companies owing various reasons.

Globalization has contributed to an increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions of technology applications and services. Also, the increasing rate of adoption of SaaS and Cloud computing had led to the need for merging and acquiring in companies.

Challenges Prior-Merger or acquisition

The first challenge is selecting the right company that can extend the portfolio of the acquiring company. The next challenge then is to prepare businesses to address existing issues surrounding finance, compatibility, management, and legal areas. The other challenge deals with the difficulties that arise when trying to integrate people, systems, and business processes. Challenges surrounding the integration of systems and business processes arise and overcoming them can be quite difficult if not done right.

Challenges post-Merger or acquisition

The Organization must overcome the challenges arising post a merger and acquisition in order to achieve its business goals efficiently and effectively and to get a competitive edge in the global market. It is rare to find two companies with identical systems and applications especially when they run different businesses. This distributed structure of organizations makes it critical to deal with the shortcomings in order to be a successful merger or acquisition.

It majorly covers 3 aspects for implementing a successful integration of two different businesses for software development companies or external vendors or company’s internal IT department. These are - 1) Strategic Aspect, 2) Organizational Aspect and 3) Technical Aspect. Each of these is elaborated in the following sections. 


a) Strategic Aspect

For any Merger and Acquisition, first of all, the company must define its strategy and relating growth objectives. Second, the company must evaluate whether the business of the acquired company is identical to its own functions. After this assessment, the company should carefully evaluate the IS of both the companies. The final step is the selection of the IS integration strategy with the choices of the total, partial, or no integration. 


b) Organizational aspects

Organizational Fit and compatibility with the acquired or merged organization is the major organizational challenge that must be catered for successfully integrating the functions of both the companies, merged or acquired. 


c) Technical Aspects

The major technical challenges that companies face following the merger and acquisition are as follows:

  1. Insufficient IT integration

A lack of synchronization throughout the IT infrastructure can cause difficulties with everyday business processes creating complications and reducing the overall efficiency of the business.

  1. Lack of visibility

With the merging of two similar businesses can lead to duplication of customer information. This emphasizes the need for a single view of customer information by implementing a proper integration of customer data information system.

  1. Data integration

It is necessary to have access to updated information regardless of whether data lies on premise or in the cloud. Without proper integration of the information system of two organizations, retrieval of information scattered across various systems, applications and services become complicated.

  1. Compliance regulation

This challenge arises when two businesses have different compliance levels. Policies, procedures, guidelines are crucial for the business to run smoothly. Moreover, when the acquiring company is global, there is a need for imparting training and education about new compliance policies to its employees.

  1. Data migration

When different information systems are to be integrated after merger or acquisition there may be challenges for migrating data due to different formats. This leads to a need for converting the data in a common format to make the data migration accurate.

  1. Cost of transition

The integration of Information System and data migration leads to incurring extra costs.  Costs from interdependent projects are rarely accounted for. Hence the cost estimation should be planned efficiently so as to make optimized use of resources and implement the transition in minimum cost.

  1. Time to market

Low experience of what is to be done, how to do, and what it would take - can lead to delayed visibility of enhancements in the company. The benefits that the company gains after merger or acquisition should have a quick visibility and quicker time to market to obtain greater profitability.

  1. Customizations

Customization may lead to low source data quality, inconsistency in data, and gaps in the expected results and actual customizations. Customization becomes necessary when two different companies are merging but at the same time customization should be implemented only where it is necessary.

  1. Adverse change impact

When there is no communication, training, or adoption plan for technology changes, this can harm the functioning of the company. Also, the unanticipated changes can lead to adverse change impact on its legacy employees.


The integration of two Information Systems is a complex project which involves several challenges. The important things to be kept in mind are:

  1. A large benefit can be achieved by a high degree of integration of the different systems
  2. A flawless communication strategy is important
  3. Maintaining competitive parity in technology usage is essential
  4. Focus should be on gradual IT cost reduction